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KuMir (Culture of Thinking by Calculations) is software developed for teaching programming to children and beginners. It aims to develop logical thinking and algorithmic thinking in users of all ages. KuMir provides a convenient environment for creating and running programs in a pseudolanguage that is easy to understand and learn even without prior knowledge of programming.

Pros

    • Easy to use: KuMIR has a simple and intuitive interface, making it accessible to children and beginner users.
    • Development of algorithmic thinking: KuMIR was specially designed to develop logical and algorithmic thinking skills in users.
    • Rich variety of learning materials: KuMIR provides users with a wealth of educational materials to learn the basics of programming.
    • Ability to create simple programs: Thanks to its simple programming language, KuMIR allows users to create simple programs even at the initial learning stage.

Cons

    • Limited functionality: Karel offers basic functions and capabilities for learning programming, but it may be limited for more advanced users.
    • Lack of support for other programming languages: Karel specializes in its own pseudo-programming language and does not support other programming languages such as C++, Python, etc.
    • Dependency on the Windows operating system: Karel is only available for Windows users and does not support other platforms.

Almost every user who has not only a personal computer but also a smartphone is familiar with the concept of Java. But few people know that Java is not just an extension for software or a way to comfortably spend time playing games, but a fully-fledged programming language that allows for working with corporate software.

Pros

    • creation of the majority of mobile applications;
    • development of a wide range of web applications;
    • targeted work on corporate software;
    • game development;
    • development of systems for smart things and smart technologies;
    • The purely universal Java language is used in many industries and operating systems;
    • the simplicity of learning Java is the first step for a future programmer in mastering codes;
    • Java has support in the form of introductory trainings and online communities that will guide newcomers on how to properly manage the program.

Cons

    • Low performance in certain cases and slow operation;
    • Problems with the graphical interface that arise in some cases;
    • Lack of data backup capability;
    • Significant use of device memory;
    • Bulky and heavy code;
    • The commercial version of Java is only available for a fee.

The portable software environment Open Server Panel provides convenience for developers, as it takes into account their recommendations and wishes. Both beginners and more experienced users who want to learn the basics of server software can take on the study of Open Server Panel.

Pros

    • an inconspicuous job in the Windows system tray;
    • the server automatically starts with the main program;
    • user-friendly representation of component logs for viewing;
    • quick switching between modules;
    • detailed and understandable program documentation;
    • fast access to configuration templates;
    • the interface has been translated into several languages.

Cons

    • The program does not support some features as a public host.
    • In some cases, you will need to configure the equipment, domains, and addresses yourself.
    • The program is of a considerable size.

GitHub is a popular platform for developers. What is the reason for its great popularity and what disadvantages have users identified?

Pros

    • A free plan that has virtually no restrictions for the user
    • open source license
    • Allowed to self-host on any plan
    • The platform is perfectly integrated with Git

Cons

    • The only drawback of the GitHub platform is the slower interface when compared to more modernized competitors. In addition, users have noticed several major problems with repositories

Python is considered one of the simplest, easily interpretable, and dynamic languages that support various programming paradigms. It was created in 1991 and has been actively used by programmers since then. With its help, you can create web development, write computer games, special programs, mobile applications, software scripts, and perform many other important tasks. In order to perform all these tasks and write new programs, you need to install an interpreter for Python programs that will interpret the instructions written in this language into understandable Windows computer code for the program.

Pros

    • simplicity and clarity, it is best suited for beginner programmers;
    • flexible and understandable syntax, which allows for easy writing, reading, and modifying of program code;
    • versatility, enabling Python to be used for writing programs of various purposes, without high performance;
    • the ability to easily integrate with other programming languages.

Cons

    • Its low performance distinguishes it, preventing the use of such a language for writing computer games that require high execution speed and a large amount of memory.
    • Python programs consume a large amount of RAM and slow down the processor's performance more than equivalent applications written in other languages.
    • The use of spaces for code indentation in functional codes, therefore, tabulation cannot be used for indentation together with spaces in the same program, as this will result in software malfunction.
    • Uncompiled code in ready-to-use applications and scripts, which cannot be converted into .exe files.
    • The need to use a compiler to run Python programs and applications.

Visual Studio Code is a well-known code editor. The utility has a convenient and intuitive interface, and also does not impose high requirements on PC parameters, so working with it is quite comfortable.

Pros

    • Easy to use. The interface is convenient and understandable, and the installation and launch of the utility do not cause any problems.
    • Disk space saving. VS Code is a compact program that does not require large resources or the download of additional software.
    • Wide selection of languages. The editor supports many major programming languages. If necessary, additional languages can also be installed using various plugins.
    • Hotkeys. Their presence significantly speeds up work and makes it more comfortable.
    • Convenient debugging. Interactive debugging helps quickly detect and fix mistakes.

Cons

    • Slow performance. On low-power devices with limited memory, Visual Studio Code may not perform fast enough. Program startup is also slow.
    • Limited functionality. Despite surpassing many similar utilities in terms of available options, the program's capabilities are not limitless, so it may not be able to handle certain tasks.